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March 28, 2005

フリーターの実態

最近、ニート(NEET(Not in Employment, Education or Training))が話題になって、フリーターが話題から遠のいているようだけど、フリーターの問題はもう済んじゃったのかなぁ。
たしかに就業形態が多様化して、フリーターってのも、ひとつの就業形態みたいな声も聞こえるけど。
僕自身、18歳から25歳くらいまでの若者と企業側の両方と接する機会が多いことから非常に気になる。
そこで、今回はフリーターについて考えてみよっと(^^)

フリーターって言葉は、16年ほど前に元フロム・エー編集長の道下裕史さんが名付けたらしい。
http://www.works-i.com/special/freeter.html
その道下さんによると…
「就職環境が良かったのに就職しない若者が登場してきたわけです。ただし、この人達にも2つのタイプがいました。一方は、マスコミなど難関志望者や作家・カメラマンなどのフリーランサー、あえてそういうところを志す明確な夢を持って努力もしている層と、必ずしも具体的な努力をしていないで、バイト・アルバイトをしている層とに分かれていたのです。後者は、今フリーターの多くを占めているといわれている、「やりたいこと」が見つからない人たちですね。フロム・エーとしては、前者の明確な夢と意思を持って努力する若者たちだけを応援したかったのです」
…というように、元々は『明確な夢を持って努力している人』を指していたようです。

では、現在フリーターはどのように定義されているかっていうと…
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「国民生活白書」のフリーターの定義
「学生、主婦を除く若年(15~34歳)のうち、パート・アルバイト(派遣等を含む)及び働く意志のある無職の人」
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「平成12年版労働白書」の定義
15~34歳までの『パート』または『アルバイト』での雇用者で、男性については継続就業年数が1~5年未満の者、もしくは家事や通学もしておらず、「パート・アルバイト」の仕事を希望する者(女性については未婚のもの)」
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…ということのようです。

んでは、フリーターはどうしてフリーターになるのでしょうか。
独立行政法人 労働政策研究・研修機構の2000年の調査では、「モラトリアム型」、「夢追求型」、「やむを得ず型」の3つに類型化しています(首都圏フリーターの意識と実態に関するヒアリング,2000年)。ちなみに「モラトリアム型」というのは、『自己形成の状態にとどまり、既成の大人社会に同化できないでいる人』を指します。
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○モラトリアム型
・離学モラトリアム型:
高校、専門学校、大学からの中退者、大学受験失敗・進学断念者、進路未定のままの高卒者・大卒者などが含まれる。
・離職モラトリアム型
高卒・短大卒・大卒後、数ヶ月から2年程度の正社員経験を経て離職し、フリーターとなった者。離職理由は労働条件や人間関係。彼らの正社員経験の印象はあまり良いものではなく、離職時に正規雇用を強く志向してはいない。

○夢追求型
・芸能志向型
バンドの練習、オーディション応募、養成機関所属など、何らかの関連活動を行っているが、夢への接近度は様々。
・職人・フリーランス志向型
経験を通した技能・技術の蓄積が要求される。関連するアルバイトを行ったり、仕事を請け負ったり、自ら作品を売り込んだりして、市場への参入を図っている。

○やむを得ず型
・正規雇用志向型
公務員など特定の職業への参入機会を待っている者、離職したが正規雇用を志向している者、就職活動に失敗した者、派遣を志向した者が含まれる。企業の採用活動がもっと積極的に行われていれば、あるいは特定の職業に関する労働市場の需給状況がもう少し緩んでいれば、このタイプの者のほとんどはフリーターとはならなかったと考えられる。
・期間限定型
進路変更による専門学校への入学時期待ち、次の入学時期までの学費稼ぎ、ワーキングホリデーのための費用稼ぎなどが含まれる。
・プライベート・トラブル型
トラブルにより学校を離れた当初の将来展望ははっきりしておらず、その意味では「1.モラトリアム型」と共通。
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さて本題のフリーターの意識についてです。
リクルート・ワークス研究所の調査によると、フリーターをしている人で今後もフリーターを続けたいとは思っている人は6.5%だったそうです。
また、独立行政法人 労働政策研究・研修機構の調査では「フリーターを一生続ける 1.0%」という結果が出ています。
そして、「将来はフリーターをやめて定職につきたい 67.5%(内、73.6%が正社員として働くことを希望)」だそうです。
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アルバイターの就労等に関する調査<2000年6月>-フリーターの意識・働き方の実態について-(リクルート・ワークス研究所)
「首都圏フリーターの意識と実態に関するヒアリング(2000年)
-----------
ちなみに以下にフリーターの意識のいくつかの調査結果を載せます。
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月収(独立行政法人 労働政策研究・研修機構)
http://www.jil.go.jp/happyou/20000713_01_jil/20000713_01_jil_hyou10.html

男女別の類型分布(独立行政法人 労働政策研究・研修機構)
http://www.jil.go.jp/happyou/20000713_01_jil/20000713_01_jil_hyou6.html

学歴別の類型分類(独立行政法人 労働政策研究・研修機構)
http://www.jil.go.jp/happyou/20000713_01_jil/20000713_01_jil_hyou7.html

同別居と生活費負担(独立行政法人 労働政策研究・研修機構)
http://www.jil.go.jp/happyou/20000713_01_jil/20000713_01_jil_hyou11.html

-----------
だいたい、月収は13万円のようですね。

次回からこれらの結果に対して、いくつか考察をしてみます。

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